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The volcanoes are between 200 and 300 km from the subduction boundary, about 250 km on average.
If the subducting crust is descending at 40 km per 100 km inland, the depth to the Juan de Plate beneath these volcanoes is between 80 and 120 km, or 100 km on average.1) The flow front advanced at a rate of about 160 m/day or just under 7 m/hour between June 27th and October 29th 2014.
That doesn’t mean that the lava only flowed at rates of a few m/hour over that time.
It likely flowed much faster (probably 10s to 100s of m/hour), but it advanced in fits and starts, and the advancing front changed locations many times.
Granitic rocks are hard and strong and difficult to break.
They are dominated by feldspar (this one has both white plagioclase and pink potassium feldspar), but almost all have some quartz (which looks glassy) and a few per cent of dark minerals, like the black amphibole in this one.
Yes, Squamish is definitely at risk from a lahar on the western side of the mountain.
The second project would be to establish some means of measuring deformation of the mountain itself.
This could be done with tiltmeters or GPS stations, but GPS would be better.
would expect to see composite volcanoes on the North Island, some 200 to 300 km inland (northwest) from the Kermadec Trench, and within the ocean along the same trend to the northeast of NZ.
There is also the potential for composite volcanism to the south of the South Island, east of the Macquarrie fault zone, although there appears to be some doubt about whether subduction is actually taking place in this region.
It depends where you live of course, but if you live anywhere in Canada and anywhere in the US east of the San Andreas fault, then you’re on the North America Plate, and that is moving towards the west at 2 to 2.5 cm/year.